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Project BioShield | The Bush Administration’s Solution to Biochemical Warfare Experimentation in the United States and the Sordid Legacy of Bioweapons Testing

Written By Michael Reign on Tuesday, November 6, 2012 | 3:07 PM


Recognized as a written proposal proffered by Congressional Representatives present within the United States political system at the onset of 2004, the BioShield initiative was formally authorized into legislative mandate by then president George W. Bush on July 21st of that same year. The enactment of the BioShield measure allocated an estimated $5 billion toward the initial purchase and subsequent sale and distribution of various agents of inoculation, medicinal antitoxins, and vaccine derivatives to numerous medical facilities throughout the continental United States. These monetary exchanges were predicated on the imminence of a biochemical offensive initiated by individuals acting on behalf of rogue nations, crime syndicates, large-scale industrial agencies of subversion, corporate-level malefactors, etc. Project BioShield is recognized as an intergovernmental directive emphasizing the ten-year progression of a focused campaign of acquisition, pursuant to the stockpiling and eventual apportionment of numerous biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents to various elements within the scientific community. Utilizing substances never formally approved for the purpose of clinical trial experimentation on human subjects, the BioShield sanction actively incorporates a vast array of Biological Hazard (A nominative appellation whose abbreviated terminological coefficient, Biohazard; acts as an inference to the existentiality of a vast contingent of substances synonymous with the high-level risk assessments/ viable threat classifications assigned into prominence by academic luminaries comprising the fields of Microbiology, the study/ analysis of microbial organisms and their varying degrees of interaction with the ecosystem as a whole, Biophysics Applications, the integration of anatomical/ physiological processes through applied physics, Structural Biology, a branch of science affiliated, in large part, with molecular biology - focuses primarily on the inherent molecular composition of macromolecular entities, Pathology, the study/ analysis of disease relevant to its gestational period, physical process, rate of incidence, overall degree of progression/ cycle of development, Virology, research and investigation of viral antagonists/ agents of infection, Populational Biology - more specifically the ecological and genetic aspects which focus primarily on population dynamics relevant to the gene frequencies of large community segments, Oncology, branch of scientific study emphasizing cancerous progression pursuant to the incidence of a viral/ mutative oncogenesis, etcetera.) Level 3 and Level 4 pathogenic derivatives/ bacteriophages (Agents of infection exhibiting parasitic tendencies/ behavioral patterns relevant to the pronounced incidence of viral contagion at a bacterial phase of prominence. Pestilential anomalies applicable to this terminological designation ravage organisms at a cellular stage of development. Through the concentrated infusion of genetic material enclosed within the axial core of protein-based capsids, bacteriophages facilitate a compromise in the structural integrity of such organisms at a biomolecular level. Matriclinous components ascribed to this classification evince commonality with ssRNA, dsRNA, ssDNA, and/ or dsDNA, the ’ss-’ or ’ds-’ prefix utilized as a point of emphasis referencing the natural occurrence of single and/ or double-strand ribonucleic acid in conjunction with its deoxyribonucleic counterpart. Physical semblances relevant to the biological incidency of these protein-based capsids are recognized as multidimensional helixes commensurate with an icosahedral diametric.) represent the largest contingent of these proposed agents of inoculation that have been marketed on a consistent basis to a wide variance of medical facilities through the enactment of the BioShield initiative, they are listed as follows in accordance with their classification:

Biological Hazard Level 3 - Agents of infection/ pathogenic derivatives exhibiting a lethal propensity relative to the continuity of life sustaining processes. Illnesses applicable to this terminological designation ascend to a lofty mantle of prominence through a wide variance of factors, evincing the following attributes relevant to their sustainability:


Vector Transmission - Vectors exist as vehicles of transmission predicated on a disease’s degree of incidence relative to a predefined statistical probability. Examples of such mechanisms facilitating the spread of infection can include each of the following: exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms through surface contact, toxic dispersants released into the atmosphere under false pretense - airborne transmission attains precedence through a process of aerosol dispersion (pesticide applications, chemical trail phenomena, etcetera), environmental disaster areas, unresolved animal or human decomposition, methods of transportation (migratory fowl, passenger planes, military aircraft, salvage ferries, mass storage marine receptacles, etcetera), dilapidated structural edifices, contaminated natural resources, industrial/ corporate-level pollution, etc.

Mass Inoculation - Government funded methodology dependent on the implementation of preventative measures by the scientific community, accomplished through the execution of a legislated campaign of controlled experimentation incorporating the use of vaccines.

Biological Hazard Level 3 agents of infection are inclusive of a vast montage of bacterial afflictions, parasitic antagonists, pathogenic derivatives, etcetera; each of which are listed as follows:


Leishmania donovani - exists as a species of Leishmania (A genus [Defined as the low-level taxonomic designation utilized in the biological classification of living and fossilized organisms] of Tripanosomatid protozoa [Recognized as a diverse class of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, microscopic in nature and evincing characteristics applicable to micro-organisms housing complex structures within membranous extensions; protozoa ascribed to this category exhibit a motile inclination], a parasitic agent of causality relative to the manifestation of the Leishmaniasis affliction) affecting an estimated 12 million individuals in 88 different countries and national provinces throughout the world.

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) - Recognized as a bacterial agent of inflection exhibiting pathogenic characteristics pursuant to the propagation of tuberculosis on a global scale.

Bacillus anthracis - exists as the pathogenic derivative of anthrax (An acute [In medicinal terminology, such designations refer to illnesses exhibiting either one or both of the following attributes: a rapid gestational period and/ or a predetermined cyclical existentiality relevant to its duration] stage affliction housed primarily in the form of endospores whose scope of sustainability extends to the farthest corners of the Earth and beyond - the Arctic Circle, Antarctica [The Russian Vostok Research Facility, an area/ region of the Earth possessing the lowest measured natural temperature at -128.6 °F/ -89.2 °C], ‘Aziziya, Libya [Northwestern national province possessing the highest recorded natural temperature at 136 °F/ 57.8 °C], despite their scientifically documented contrasts in incalescence, are each recognized as viable geographical regions for the proliferation of such biological entities).


Chlamydophila psittaci - a lethal intracellular bacterial strain acting as an agent of causality relevant to the incidence of endemic (The prospect of endemism exists as an ecological phenomena unique to a predefined geographic set of coordinates [Examples of such regions can be inclusive of islands, nation states, etcetera]) avian chlamydiosis, epizootic (Analogous terminological equivalent to the onset of a rift within the prevailing ecosystem, a phenomenon attributed to human populations synonymous with the epidemic classification. The epizootic appellate exists as a marked increase or drastic statistical deviation relative to the incidence of disease in any one given animal commune) strain mutations, and respiratory psittacosis (Also recognized under each of the following classifications: parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosis; psittacosis exists as a zoonotic [Agents of infection transmitted at an interspecieal level, oftentimes through the incidence of genetic mutation; whereby the disease itself exhibits transmigratory properties in its evolutionary cycle] illness precipitated by the presence of the chlamydophila psittaci bacterium in an environmental setting) in humans.

West Nile Virus (WNV) - a viral pathogen endemic to the Flaviviridae family (Viral concentrations spread through arthropod vectors - mainly ticks and mosquitoes housing the genetic material of the aforementioned virion. Classified as a component of the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of viruses, the West Nile virus is indigenous to both tropical and temperate geographical regions).

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus - a mosquito-borne viral pathogen affecting every conceivable equine species (Horses, donkeys, and zebras are primary examples). Susceptibility to infection in humans and other species of mammal is propagated exponentially through the presence of arthropod vectors in an environmental setting.

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) corona virus (SARS-CoV) - recognized as the viral contagion responsible for the spread of SARS. Genetic samples housing the pathogenic agent are being housed in several government subsidized laboratories/ facilities throughout the world, most specifically, the following localities:

New York, New York
San Francisco, California
Manila, Philippines
Hong Kong
Toronto, Canada


Salmonella Typhi - exists as a bacterial variant of the salmonella enterica specieal nomenclature, the Typhi subspecieal classification refers to a distinctive pathogenic element within the serovar/ serotype (Key terms of reference emphasizing the presence of a mutagenic agent within a particular species of bacterial pathogens or viral contagions possessing a certain degree of commonality with the autoimmune system. These microbial agents of infection, viruses, or cellular anomalies are categorized based on the presence of surface antigens [Antigenic derivatives are referenced in numerous scientific deliberations applicable to the study of immunology; they are identified as intracellular substances or agents responsible for the production of antibodies], thus facilitating the epidemiological classification of organisms at the subspecieal level.) terminological designation.

Coxiella Burnetii - the causative agent of Q Fever (the Q abbreviation’s literal interpretation recognized as Query, the origins of such organisms found primarily in livestock, sheep, goats, and various species of domesticated mammals. Q Fever exists as a pathogenic agent of infection whose principal scope of regency is synonymous with the process of inhalation; arising primarily from spore-shaped cellular variants as well through exposure/ contact at the epidermal level with the following vectors of transmission: milk, urine, fecal excrement, vaginal mucus, or semen from affected animals.), Coxiella Burnetii exists as an obligate intracellular bacterial strain (a parasitic derivative incapable of reproductive capacity beyond the confines of the host cell, whereby the procreative cycle is reliant on the presence of intracellular material). Examples of obligate intracellular bacterium exhibiting parasitic tendencies toward humanity at the genetic level are categorized in the following fashion:

Viruses

Certain bacterial derivatives that are inclusive of the following: Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Coxiella, Bacillus anthracis, and various species of Mycobacterium - primarily Mycobacterium leprae

Certain species of protozoa, primarily Apicomplexans and Trypanosomatids - with the following microbial agents of infection being attributed to each of the two classes:

Apicomplexans

Plasmodium - a parasitic genus responsible for the incidence of malaria
Toxoplasma gondii
Cryptosporidium parvum

Trypanosomatids

Leishmania
Trypanosoma cruzi

Certain fungal agents of infection, specifically Pneumocystis jirovecii


Rift Valley Fever - exists as a viral zoonosis (Infectious diseases exhibiting interspecieal characteristics relevant to the onset of illness through their correspondent vectors of transmission) that primarily affects domestic livestock, with spread of infection to human counterparts made possible through cross contamination.

Rickettsia rickettsii - known alternatively under the R. rickettsii abbreviated agnomen, the principal incarnation of this illness is recognized as a unicellular, gram-negative coccobacillus that is indigenous to the Earth’s Western Hemisphere. Inclusive of the spotted fever group (SFG) of Rickettsia, the illness is synonymous with causative agents of infection related to the incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). In its natural setting, R. rickettsii exists as an obligate intracellular parasite whose sustainability is contingent on the existence of an endosymbiotic relationship (endosymbionts are organisms whose subsistence is dependent on the welfare of its host, thus through a shared environment a type of mutual coexistence can be achieved).

Yellow Fever - an acute viral hemorrhagic disease known alternatively under the Yellow Jack or Bronze John appellation. Transmitted through contact with female mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti species, its principal locus of sustainability synonymous with tropical and subtropical regions in South America and Africa. Carriers of this disease consist primarily of primate species as well as other mosquitoes deemed indigenous to the surrounding regions.


Biological Hazard Level 4 - Illnesses applicable to this particular class are inclusive of extremely virulent contagions exhibiting exotic characteristics foreign to standard accepted nomenclature. Agents of infection applicable to this terminological designation possess some of the highest degrees of transmissibility via aerosol/ dispersant - projectile devices (Stratospheric Sulfate Reflective Nano-particulate [Aerosol] Dispersants, the scientific equivalent of Chemtrails, are recognized as the primary consideration utilized by rogue internationalist consortiums for purposes of biomolecular alteration on a global scale). Diseases pertinent to this classification remain incurable under conventional means of diagnoses and are listed as follows:

Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever (BHF) - known alternatively as Black Typhus or Ordog Fever, Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever exists as a pathogenic contagion whose spread of infection is dictated by the presence of vectors - specifically the vesper mouse (Binomial nomenclature: Calomys callosus), a species of rodent indigenous to northern Bolivia. Infected animals exhibit asymptomatic characteristics (Physiological condition/ predisposition indicative of the absence of visible signs of infection), spreading illness on an interspecieal level through the release of excretory substances.
Machupo Virus is the unanimously recognized agent of causality afflicting the prevailing human genome with regard to the incidence of BHF.


Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) - an agent of infection known alternatively as O’Higgins Disease, referred to as mal de los rastrojos in Argentina, AHF exhibits characteristics similar to that of its Bolivian counterpart - both in its vector of transmission (recognized as the corn mouse) and in its primary agent of causality, the Junín virus (an Arenavirus [Pathogenic derivatives endemic to various species of rodents, and in the case of the Junín virus, common to various regions of South America, but almost exclusively to the Argentinian landscape] resembling the Machupo Virus in terms of its molecular composition).

Marburg Virus (MARV) - first identified in small epidemic outbreaks localized primarily in the German cities of Marburg and Frankfurt, later discovered in the Yugoslavian capital city of Belgrade in the 1960s. Workers present within the confines of the city’s main industrial plant were accidentally exposed to the tissues of infected grivets (Binomial nomenclature: Chlorocebus aethiops) during its excavation, thereby providing the disease an opportunity to flourish in its scope of influence through interspecieal transmission. The illness itself is recognized as a particularly virulent strain of hemorrhagic fever endemic to several species of primate and capable of transmission at the specieal level through the presence of vectors.



Figure 2. The principal origins of the Ebola Virus

Ebola Virus (EBOV) - a pathogenic strain initially thought to be a biomolecular variance of the Marburg Virus in 1977, the EBOV appellate was derived from a river (the Ebola River, first thought to be in close proximity with an area in Zaire where the first recorded disease outbreak was officially documented) with the same name. EBOV is one of four variations to the initial class that was discovered in 1976 by David Finkes, a renowned scientist proficient in the field of pathogenic research. The three incarnations separate from the aforementioned variant are recognized under the following applications:

Bundibugyo Virus (BDBV) - an illness whose first documented incidence of infection occurred in August 1st of 2007 in the Bundibugyo and Kikyo townships of the Bundibugyo District in western portions of Uganda. The ecology of BDBV remains indeterminate, with no reservoir host or conceivable vector of transmission able to be adequately classified.

Sudan Virus (SUDV) - first introduced as a pathogenic strain of the Ebola Virus in 1977, endemic to regions of the Sudan in East Africa. The ecology of SUDV, like its Bundibugyo Viral counterpart, remains indeterminate, with no reservoir host or conceivable vector of transmission able to be adequately classified.

Taï Forest Virus (TAFV) - one of four agents of causality responsible for the onset of EVD (Ebola Viral Disease) in humans; Taï Forest Virus achieved prominence in 1994, when the onset of a viral hemorrhagic fever among a large contingent of western chimpanzees frequenting the Taï National Park grounds spread to the surrounding regions.

Lassa Virus (LASV) - recognized as an arenavirus (Pathogenic derivatives endemic to various species of rodents) that acts as a catalyst for the emergence of Lassa Hemorrhagic Fever in various species of primates as well their human counterparts in neighboring regions. The highest degree of incidence relative to the onset of infection evinces commonality with numerous West African nations, specifically Sierra Leone, the Republic of Guinea, Nigeria, and Liberia with 300,000 to 500,000 confirmed cases resulting in more than 5,000 fatalities annually.

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) - a pervasive illness common to various species of ticks endemic to portions of East and West Africa, most specifically the following: Argas reflexus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus.


Smallpox - a highly contagious disease existing in two distinct clinical incarnations. Variola major is recognized as the most severe manifestation of the illness with the highest degree of incidence amongst the two dissimilar forms. In conjunction with the Rao classification (Terminological appellate referencing the existence of a system of categorization acting as the principal identifier of the Variola major smallpox incarnation’s degrees of severity, named after Dr. A. R. Rao), infections involving the Variola major smallpox application can assume four equally separate and distinctive forms. In correlation with the aforementioned exposition the four noted descriptors are listed accordingly:

Ordinary - Rates of affliction exceed ninety percent of confirmed cases of infection, with fatalities resulting from exposure virtually nonexistent.

Modified - Occurs primarily in patients that were inoculated against the Variola major clinical variant of the smallpox infection. Such revelations lend a greater degree of credence to assertions that seek to validate the existence of a sinister connotation between the spread of illness and the application of vaccines as a preventative measure.

Malignant - Historically, the rate of incidence concerning this incarnation of the illness is documented at 5 to 10% of all confirmed cases worldwide. Nearly all instances of infection relevant to this form of smallpox are fatal.


Hemorrhagic - Its degree of severity unrivaled in its scope of influence, the hemorrhagic incarnation of the smallpox illness achieves precedence in approximately 2% of all infected persons.

Variola minor is the least common presentation, with documented instances of casualty historically low, with death rates of 1% or less.

The transmissibility of smallpox through the application of aerosol/ dispersant - projectile devices, most notably Stratospheric Sulfate Reflective Nano-particulate (Aerosol) Dispersants (Chemtrails) is recognized as the primary vehicle of its propagation. Such revelations are particularly disconcerting given the fact that such methods are currently being utilized by unknown parties within the Federal government as a means to engender the marked decrease in the present populational spectrum.

Biological Hazard Level 5* - Exist as pathogenic derivatives specifically engineered to function as catalysts in the field of biological warfare. Binary Biological Weapons fall into this category along with genetically engineered hybrid bacterial cultures that are cultivated in a scientific setting.



Binary Biological Weaponry - Analogous to binary chemical weapons, these particular agents of infection exist as two-component systems housing innocuous variables that are biomolecularly integrated prior to their utilization to create pathogenic antagonists. Such processes are endemic to environmental settings in the natural sense. Numerous pathogenic derivatives contain multiple plasmids (miniscule circular-shaped extrachromosomal DNA fragments) that act as a coded sequence for virulence potentiality as well as various other distinctive functions. The virulence of anthrax, plague, dysentery, and other diseases present within each of the final two biological hazard distinctions is significantly enhanced by the presence of these plasmids. Through a process of biomolecular engineering, the onset of illness in terms of a natural system of progression can then be altered. Through biotechnological advancements conducted in a controlled scientific setting virulent plasmids can bypass specieal barriers through an artificially induced system of transference.

Biological Hazard Level 6* - Sub-categorical designation consistent with the previous Biological Hazard incarnation, inclusive of experimental pathogenic derivatives as well as exotic agents of infection whose exact origins remain indeterminate. Stealth Viruses exist as an intrinsic component of the 6th class and are defined as follows:

Stealth Viruses - Cryptic pathogenic derivatives that covertly infiltrate the human genome sequence, remaining in a state of dormancy for extended periods. Signals generated through the presence of an external stimulus function as a type of catalyst triggering the activation of the virus and precipitating the disease’s incidence. Examples of such mechanisms can be found in abundance through natural occurrence, they are documented in the following instances:


Herpes simplex, a viral disease characterized by the incidence of oral or genital lesions, is an example of one such illness that falls into such a category - whereby its dormancy or latency exists as a genetic precursor toward its activation.

Varicella zoster virus (VZV), one of eight biomolecular incarnations of the Herpes virus known to afflict humans and other vertebrates, remains in a state of extended dormancy following the incidence of chicken pox in the early stages of childhood only to be reactivated in the form of Herpes zoster (shingles) in the latter stages of adulthood.

Utilized in the form of a biological weapon, the genesis of a stealth virus within the prevailing genome could then effectively precipitate the onset of pandemic in the world ecosystem. Cognizant of attributes pertaining to the gestation of stealth viruses, the implementation of an extended dormancy paired in conjunction with the threat of activation within a particular segment of the population, could function as an instrument of extortion.


Oncogenes, segments of DNA possessing an inherent instability applicable to instances of unpredictable patterns of cellular growth/ biomolecular anomalies (it is important to distinguish that the incidence of such behaviors at the cellular level validate a genetic predisposition to cancer), also fall under the 6th class of Biological Hazards mentioned in this brief written addendum. Through a process of genetic alteration and the use of bioregulatory devices, numerous pathogenic agents of infection exhibiting characteristics similar to their oncogenic counterparts can be modified at the molecular level to act as a catalyst for cancer cell formation. The diagram below this brief introductory stanza further elaborates on these contentions, equating the process of biomolecular alteration of naturally occurring proto-oncogenes with the propagation of cancerous cells:


Biological Hazard Level 7* - Consists primarily of xenobiological (Xenobiology exists as a multidisciplinary field of study concentrated on the nature, existence, and quest for extraterrestrial life forms), extraterrestrial, or alien agents of infection. Such a distinction is also inclusive of undefined biomolecular anomalies that remain indeterminate in their principal scope of influence.

NOTE* - Biological Hazard Levels 5, 6, and 7 are theoretically assigned rubrics of distinction that - specifically the 5th and 6th standard thresholds - reference the utilization of technologies designed to foster the creation of weaponized biomolecular variants. The 7th class being one predicated on the existence of extraterrestrial, or alien agencies, of infection. The inclusion of ‘extraterrestrial’ as a component of eponymic significance is not necessarily indicative of the aforementioned article’s place of origin, but rather as a terminological point of emphasis referencing the existence of anomalous, previously unidentified, strains of contagion.

The following cinematic appendage to the above dissertation further elaborates on the nature of this particular contrivance:


LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE: 

Assessing the Ten Most Lethal Biological Weapons Agents

BioShield Compliant Storage Repositories and Containment Facilities 

Storage receptacles whose design specifications, in compliance with Federal regulation, house a wide variance of biologically deleterious elements, most notably Biohazard Level 3 and Level 4 agents of infection. Structural prerequisites for the containment of genetically engineered pathogenic strains, viral contagions, and their synthetic complements applicable to the 5th, 6th, and 7th designation remain the subject of speculation, with their accessibility determined as a measure of security clearance.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located in Atlanta, Georgia, this containment facility includes the following subsidiaries within the confines of its structural periphery:

Specieal Pathogens Branch (SPB)
Division of Viral Rickettsial Diseases (DVRD)
National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID)


Texas Biomedical Research Institute - Located in San Antonio, Texas, this storage repository is inclusive of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research (SFBR) Subdivision


National Center for Biodefense and Infectious Diseases (NCBID) - Located in Fairfax, Virginia, NCBID is pursuing research into environmental sampling to effect the identification of various biological threats, aerobiology techniques to investigate airborne contagions and toxins, and pathogenic mechanisms in microbial diseases.


University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) - Located in Galveston, Texas, this research facility includes the following structural appendage:

Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (CBEID)


United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland


Virginia BioTechnology Research Park, Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS) “BioTechSix”, Richmond, VA (Department of General Services of the Commonwealth of Virginia) (“surge BSL4”) - Formally constructed in 2003 and located in Richmond, Virginia, the BioTech Six facility is a three-story, 191,000 square-foot, $63 million structure that serves as the state’s confirmatory laboratory for the national Laboratory Response Network, and is the PulseNet Regional Laboratory for the mid-Atlantic region. DCLS is a member of the Food Emergency Response Network and the Radiation Emergency Analytical Laboratory Network, and provides emergency analytical support for Virginia, neighboring states and federal agencies, particularly in response to terrorism, public health and environmental emergencies throughout Virginia and the Central Atlantic states.


Center for Biotechnology and Drug Design, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia

NIH’s (National Institute of Health’s) Maximum Containment Laboratory (MCL), Building 41A, Bethesda, Maryland

NIH’s (National Institute of Health’s) Maximum Containment Laboratory (MCL), Twinbrook III Building, Rockville, Maryland

United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt

The following registry links offer further insight into the subject of biological weapons storage capability, providing prospective viewing audiences with a comprehensive listing of containment facilities, regardless of geographical location:

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

Maximum Containment: The Most Controversial Biological Weapons Storage Facilities and Laboratories in the World
Maximum Security Containment Facilities


WRITTEN ADDENDUM: It is inevitable that there will always be elements of society questioning the veracity of information associated with the prospect of molecular engineering, specifically as it pertains to the subject of biochemical weapons and pathogenic derivatives - the registry links preceding the contents of this brief stanza serve as affirmation regarding the existence of these programs:

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

U.S. Federal Government Actively Engineering the Development of Lethal New Viruses
EXCLUSIVE: Professor Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Creates Deadly New Influenza Strain, a Biomolecularly Engineered Variant of the 2009 Swine Flu H1N1 Contagion, For Purposes of Pandemic Research

BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS EXPERIMENTS


What follows is an itemized listing of various date specific entries affirming the existence of clandestine government policies concerning the use of biological weapons derivatives, that, during the course of numerous experimental forays, were conducted on the civilian populations of nations across the globe:

1833

Anointed as the “Father of Gastric Physiology” by his constituents within the scientific community, Dr. William Beaumont, an army surgeon/ physician, pioneers gastric medicine with his study of a patient with a permanently open gunshot wound to the abdomen and writes a human medical experimentation code that asserts the importance of experimental treatments, but also lists requirements stipulating that human subjects must give voluntary, informed consent and be able to end the experiment when they want. Beaumont’s Code lists verbal, rather than just written, consent as permissible.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

The Gruesome Medical Breakthrough of Dr. William Beaumont on Mackinac Island

1845-1849

J. Marion Sims, later hailed as the “Father of Gynecology,” performs medical experiments on enslaved African women without anesthesia. These women would usually die of infection soon after surgery. Based on his belief that the movement of newborns’ skull bones during protracted births causes trismus, he also uses a shoemaker’s awl, a pointed tool shoemakers use to make holes in leather, to practice moving the skull bones of babies born to enslaved mothers.


1895

New York pediatrician Henry Heiman infects a 4-year-old boy whom he calls “an idiot with chronic epilepsy” with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment.

1896

Dr. Arthur Wentworth turns 29 children at Boston’s Children’s Hospital into human guinea pigs when he performs spinal taps on them, just to determine whether the procedure is harmful.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

Dr. Arthur Wentworth and the First Lumbar Puncture at the Boston Children’s Hospital in 1895

1900

A U.S. doctor doing research in the Philippines infects a number of prisoners with the Plague. He continues his research by inducing Beriberi in another 29 prisoners, four test subjects die as a result of these experiments.

Under commission from the U.S. surgeon general, Dr. Walter Reed goes to Cuba and uses 22 Spanish immigrant workers to prove that Yellow Fever is, in fact, a mosquito borne illness. In doing so, he introduces the practice of using healthy test subjects, and also the concept of a written contract to confirm informed consent of these subjects. While doing this study, Dr. Reed expressly tells the subjects that, though he will do everything he can to help them, they may die as a result of these experiments. He pays them $100 in gold for their participation, plus $100 extra if they contract Yellow Fever.

1906

Harvard professor Dr. Richard Strong infects prisoners in the Philippines with cholera to study the disease; 13 of which die from their exposure to the disease. He compensates survivors with cigars and cigarettes. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors cite this study to justify their own medical experiments.

1907

Indiana passes the world’s first law authorizing the state to force the sterilization of those it deems unfit to reproduce, coincidentally, at the time of this legislation’s passage, Adolf Hitler turns 18 in Germany.


1911

Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research publishes data on injecting an inactive syphilis preparation into the skin of 146 hospital patients and normal children in an attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis. Later, in 1913, several of these children’s parents sue Dr. Noguchi for allegedly infecting their children with syphilis.

1913

Medical practitioners “test” 15 children at the children’s home St. Vincent’s House in Philadelphia with tuberculin, resulting in permanent blindness in some of the children. Though the Pennsylvania House of Representatives records the incident, the researchers are not punished for the experiments.

1915

Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under order of the U.S. Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system, in 12 Mississippi inmates to try to find a cure for the disease. In 1935, after millions die from the disease, the director of the U.S Public Health Office would finally admit that officials had known that it was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time, but did nothing about it because it mostly affected poor African-Americans. During the Nuremberg Trials, Nazi scientists used this study to try to justify their medical experiments on concentration camp inmates.

1918

In response to the Germans’ use of chemical weapons during World War I, President Wilson creates the Chemical Warfare Service (CWS) as a branch of the U.S. Army. Twenty-four years later, in 1942, the CWS would begin performing mustard gas and lewisite experiments on over 4,000 members of the armed forces.

1919-1922

Researchers perform testicular transplant experiments on inmates at San Quentin State Prison in California, inserting the testicles of recently executed inmates and goats into the abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners.

1925

Margaret Mead publishes “Coming of Age in Samoa,” an account of adolescent life in Samoa apparently devoid of the angst and stress of adolescence in more modern cultures. Liberals seize on this work as proof that by re-engineering the society, man himself can be re-engineered for the better; that environment only is what determines behavior. Being the provenance and justification of the liberal philosophy, Mead is elevated to a cultural heroine.

However, as Freemen pointed out in his critical analysis, Mead erred in using only two young women as her source of information. Samoans love a good joke, they love to “talk story” and during a later investigation by the government in Samoa, the women that Mead had talked to were not shy about admitting they had simply told Mead what Mead clearly wanted to hear, unaware of what Mead would do with the information, and Mead, dearly wishing to hear what she heard, never bothered to speak with any other Samoans. Had she done so, she would have found that Samoan children go through the same growing pains as children everywhere. The most obvious evidence that Mead was wrong was her assumption that Samoans were sexually promiscuous because the Hawaiians of the time were. In fact, the Samoan culture has never been a sexually promiscuous one.

Virtually the entire justification for government intrusion into private lives derived from Mead’s work, and it should hardly come as a surprise that both the liberal and anthropological establishment have reacted to this controversy much as the Catholic Church reacted to Galileo, and even though Mead’s basic conclusion of environment over heredity has been called into question, public policy continues to be shaped by its assumption.

1927

Carrie Buck of Charlottesville is legally sterilized against her will at the Virginia Colony Home for the Mentally Infirm. Carrie Buck was the mentally normal daughter of a developmentally disabled mother, but under the Virginia law, she was declared potentially capable of having a “less than normal child” after having one normal child (by rape) and was forcibly sterilized.

The settlement of Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital (same institution, different name) in 1981 brought to an end the Virginia law. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 perfectly normal women were forcibly sterilized for “legal” reasons including alcoholism, prostitution, and criminal behavior in general.


1931

The Puerto Rican Cancer Experiment is undertaken by Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, a pathologist from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, infects human subjects with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he conducts a series of radiation exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients. 

1931-1933

Mental patients at Elgin State Hospital in Illinois are injected with Radium-266 (Radium-266 was the first and most common isotope used in medicine, being present in all x-ray machines through the 1950s) as an experimental therapy for mental illness.

1932



The Tuskegee Syphilis Study commences. 200 black men diagnosed with syphilis are never informed of their illness, are subsequently denied treatment, and instead are isolated in a controlled experimental setting in order to diagnose the progression and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their families never told that they could have been treated.

Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, wrote in “A Plan For Peace” that her aims were, “To give certain dysgenic groups in our population their choice of segregation [concentration camps] or sterilization.” Between 2000-4000 forced sterilizations per year were being conducted in the United States. The following year, when Ernst Rüdin established the Nazi system for forced sterilization of those it deemed unfit to reproduce, Rassenhygiene (Race hygiene), he chose as his inspiration and model the writings of William H. Tucker, associate professor of psychology at Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, USA. When Rüdin’s forced sterilization of Jews by irradiation with X-rays was revealed, Margaret Sanger refused to denounce him.

Veterans from WW I, made homeless by the stock market crash of 1929, erect several tent cities near Washington D.C. while they try to collect on a promised combat bonus which the government has failed to pay (a situation the U.S. troops in Bosnia and Iraq can identify with). Rather than compensate the veterans for their services, the government orders the U.S. Cavalry to destroy the tent cities. The troops attack the camp on horseback with drawn sabers, against unarmed men, woman, and children.

If anyone doubts that our government would use its own weapons against its own troops, gaze upon this atrocity. These were not deserters. They were honorable soldiers, who had actively participated in combat, been refused their promised stipend, made homeless by the government’s economic policies, then mercilessly cut down. Yet another example illustrating the contemptuous attitude of the Global Elite towards military service personnel, in this particular instance, in the form of auditory communication by Henry Alfred Kissinger:



1934

Leon Whitley, of the American Eugenics Society, receives a letter requesting a copy of his recent book, “The Case for Sterilization.” He mails it off, and soon receives a personal letter of thanks... from Adolf Hitler.

In a letter of gratitude to American author Madison Grant, Hitler declares Grant’s book, “The Great Race” to be his “bible.

1935


The Pellagra Incident, after millions of individuals die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency but failed to act since most of the deaths occurred within poverty-stricken black populations.

1937

Scientists at Cornell University Medical School publish an angina drug study that uses both placebo and blind assessment techniques on human test subjects. They discover that the subjects given the placebo experienced more of an improvement in symptoms than those who were given the actual drug. This is first account of the placebo effect published in the United States.

1939

In order to test his theory on the roots of stuttering, prominent speech pathologist Dr. Wendell Johnson performs his famous “Monster Experiment” on 22 children at the Iowa Soldiers’ Orphans’ Home in Davenport. Dr. Johnson and his graduate students put the children under intense psychological pressure, causing them to switch from speaking normally to stuttering heavily. At the time, some of the students reportedly warn Dr. Johnson that, “in the aftermath of World War II, observers might draw comparisons to Nazi experiments on human subjects, which could destroy his career.”


1940

Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs and vaccine derivatives to combat the spread of the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.

1941

Dr. William C. Black infects a 12-month-old baby with herpes as part of a medical experiment. At the time, the editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Francis Payton Rous, calls it “an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science.”

An article in a 1941 issue of Archives of Pediatrics describes medical studies of the severe gum disease Vincent’s angina in which doctors transmit the disease from sick children to healthy children with oral swabs.

Drs. Thomas Francis and Jonas Salk and other researchers at the University of Michigan spray large amounts of wild influenza virus directly into the nasal passages of “volunteers” from mental institutions throughout the state of Michigan. The test subjects develop influenza within a very short period of time.

Researchers give 800 poverty-stricken pregnant women at a Vanderbilt University prenatal clinic “cocktails” including radioactive iron in order to determine the iron requirements of pregnant women.


1942

The Chemical Warfare Service begins mustard gas and lewisite (Link 1, Link 2) experiments on 4,000 members of the U.S. military. Some test subjects don’t realize they are volunteering for chemical exposure experiments, like 17-year-old Nathan Schnurman, who in 1944 thinks he is only volunteering to test “U.S. Navy summer clothes.” The experiments continue until 1945 and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to participate in the studies rather than serve on active duty.

The United States creates Fort Detrick, a 92-acre facility, employing nearly 500 scientists working to create biological weapons and develop defensive measures against them. Fort Detrick’s main objectives include investigating whether diseases are transmitted by inhalation, digestion or through skin absorption; of course, these biological warfare experiments heavily relied on the use of human subjects.

U.S. Army and Navy doctors infect 400 prison inmates in Chicago with malaria to study the disease and hopefully develop a treatment for it. The prisoners are told that they are helping the war effort, but not informed that they are going to be infected with malaria. During Nuremberg Trials, Nazi doctors later cite this American study to defend their own medical experiments in concentration camps like Auschwitz.


1943

In response to Japan’s full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD.


In order to “study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders,” researchers at University of Cincinnati Hospital keep 16 mentally disabled patients in refrigerated cabinets for 120 hours at 30 degrees Fahrenheit.

1944

U.S. Naval contingents use human subjects to test gas masks and clothing. Individuals who participated in these studies were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard gas and lewisite.

Wright Langham, one of the first individuals in the scientific community to be actively commissioned to pioneer experiments involving the use of plutonium. Subsequently named director of the Chicago Plutonium Project (A measure deemed instrumental in the Manhattan Project’s actualization in the modern era) in 1944, Langham was eventually transferred to Los Alamos where five micrograms of the aforementioned element were later transported to Oak Park, Illinois where the first experimental trials were conducted.

As part of the Manhattan Project that would eventually create the atomic bomb, researchers inject 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility, 20 miles west of Knoxville, Tennessee.

Captain A. W. Frisch, an experienced microbiologist, begins experiments on four volunteers from the state prison at Dearborn, Michigan, inoculating prisoners with Hepatitis-infected specimens obtained in North Africa. One prisoner dies; two others develop Hepatitis but live; the fourth develops symptoms but does not actually contract the disease.

Laboratory workers at the University of Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human test subjects with phosphorus-32 to ascertain the metabolic progression of hemoglobin.

A captain in the medical corps addresses an April 1944 memo to Col. Stanford Warren, head of the Manhattan Project’s Medical Section, expressing his concerns about atom bomb component fluoride’s central nervous system (CNS) effects and asking for animal research to be done to determine the extent of these effects: “Clinical evidence suggests that uranium hexafluoride may have a rather marked central nervous system effect ... It seems most likely that the F [code for fluoride] component rather than the T [code for uranium] is the causative factor... Since work with these compounds is essential, it will be necessary to know in advance what mental effects may occur after exposure.” The following year, the Manhattan Project would begin human-based studies on fluoride’s effects.

The Manhattan Project medical team, led by the now infamous University of Rochester radiologist Colonel Safford Warren, injects plutonium into patients at the University’s teaching hospital, Strong Memorial (Burton Report).

1944-1946

In order to quickly develop a cure for Malaria -- a disease hindering Allied success in World War II -- University of Chicago Medical School professor Dr. Alf Sven Alving - infects psychotic patients at Illinois State Hospital with the disease through blood transfusions and then experiments with various chemical agents in an attempt to discover a cure for the prior stated malady.
 


1945

Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret government projects in the United States.


Program F” is implemented by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride, it is later discovered, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system but much of the information is concealed in the name of national security because of the fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of atomic bombs.


On March 24, 1945, a 55-year-old black truck driver, Ebb Cade, was admitted to the U.S. Army Manhattan Engineer District Hospital in Oakridge, Tennessee for treatment of bodily injuries resulting from a car accident. The extent of his injuries were so severe that he was not expected to live. On April 10, 1945, documents show that he was injected with a significant amount of plutonium. Cade was the first patient out of 18--all of which the DOE (Department of Energy) has still not completely identified--to be injected with plutonium. He received 0.29 microcuries (μCi) of plutonium-239, a dose equal to 1,030 rems (Roentgen equivalent man) or 41.2 times what the average person receives in a lifetime.
Dr. Karl Morgan, a physicist from the University of Chicago, who came to Oakridge in 1943 to work on the Manhattan Project, described in a letter to The Oakridger newspaper how Dr. Robert S. Stone--the doctor who injected the plutonium--discussed Cade’s unsuspecting involvement and eventual disappearance from the hospital a few days later. Morgan writes: “Dr. Stone was particularly concerned because, as he said, this man was part of an experiment to determine the risk to man from exposure to plutonium. This poor ‘expected casualty’ had suddenly gotten up out of his bed at the hospital and disappeared. I was upset and concerned when I heard about this human experiment because as described to me this black man was unconscious and not expected to live when he was injected with plutonium. I was disturbed for two reasons: One, the poor man could not possibly have given his consent to be a guinea pig and two, I was afraid he was selected for this experiment in part because he was black and it was unlikely any of his family would learn of the plutonium injection... ”


Government Authorized Plutonium Experimentation on Civilian Populations

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

Human Plutonium Injection Experiments
 
Continuing the Manhattan Project, researchers inject plutonium into three patients at the University of Chicago’s Billings Hospital.

Researchers infect 800 prisoners in Atlanta with Malaria to study the disease’s progression.

1946

General Douglas MacArthur strikes a secret deal with Japanese physician Dr. Shiro Ishii to turn over 10,000 pages of information gathered from human experimentation in exchange for granting Ishii immunity from prosecution for the horrific experiments he performed on Chinese, Russian, and American war prisoners, including performing vivisections on live human beings. Male and female test subjects at Chicago’s Argonne National Laboratories are given intravenous injections of arsenic-76 so that researchers can study how the human body absorbs, distributes, and excretes the noxious chemical.

Patients in VA (Veterans Affairs) hospitals are used as test subjects during the course of several medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given to change the word “experiments” to “investigations” or “observations” whenever reporting a medical study performed in one of the nation’s veteran’s hospitals.

Continuing the Newburg study of 1945, the Manhattan Project commissions the University of Rochester to study fluoride’s effects on animals and humans in a project codenamed “Program F.” With the help of the New York State Health Department, Program F researchers secretly collect and analyze blood and tissue samples from Newburg residents. The studies are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission and take place at the University of Rochester Medical Center’s Strong Memorial Hospital.

Six male employees of a Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that researchers can learn how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract.


Human test subjects are given one to four injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of Medicine. Researchers take tissue biopsies from the subjects before and after the injections.

1946-1953

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission sponsors studies in which researchers from Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Boston University School of Medicine feed mentally disabled students at Fernald State School Quaker Oats breakfast cereal spiked with radioactive trace elements every morning so that nutritionists can study how preservatives move through the human body and if they block the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Later, MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) researchers conduct the same study at Wrentham State School.

NOTE - On December 31, 1997, Quaker Oats settled a civil suit brought against it for its participatory role in experiments involving the inclusion of radioactive isotopes in breakfast cereal on mentally disabled students from 1946-1953. The 30 plaintiffs in the case were eventually awarded a total of $1.85 million in damages.


1947

Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive substances to human subjects.


A secret AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) document dated April 17 reads, “It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits,” revealing that the U.S. government was aware of the health risks its nuclear tests posed to military personnel conducting the tests and to civilian populations in range of the experiments.

The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential weapon for use by American intelligence operatives. Human subjects (both civilian and military) are used with and without their knowledge of their purpose in each of these experimental trials.

Elmer Allen, a 36-year old railroad porter in San Francisco, is widely acknowledged by several elements in the scientific community to be the last of California’s subjects to be administered plutonium injections on July 18, 1947. Diagnosed with bone cancer, Allen’s left leg was injected with heavy does of plutonium for a period of two days. On the third day, his leg was amputated and flown to the Atomic Energy Commission’s laboratory where the studies concerning the effects of radiation exposure where conducted. In 1973, Allen was readmitted to a medical facility and subsequently given a full body radiation assessment scan. The doctors later acquire urine and blood samples to assess the residual amounts of plutonium in his physical anatomy from experimental trials conducted 26 years earlier.

1947-1953

The U.S. Navy begins Project CHATTER to identify and test so-called “truth serums,” such as those used by the Soviet Union to interrogate spies. Mescaline and the central nervous system depressant scopolamine are among the many drugs tested on human subjects.

1948

Based on the secret studies performed on Newburgh, N.Y. residents beginning in 1945, Project F researchers publish a report in the August 1948 edition of the Journal of the American Dental Association, detailing fluoride's health dangers. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) quickly censors it for “national security” reasons.


1950

The CIA and later the Office of Scientific Intelligence begin Project Bluebird (renamed Project Artichoke [Link 1, Link 2] in 1951) in order to find ways to “extract” information from CIA agents, control individuals "through special interrogation techniques,” “enhance memory” and use “unconventional techniques, including hypnosis and drugs” for offensive measures.
The Department of Defense begins plans to detonate nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates. In an experiment to determine how susceptible an American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud of bacteria from ships over San Francisco. Monitoring devices are situated throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.

Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania infects 200 female prisoners with viral Hepatitis to study the disease.

Doctors at the Cleveland City Hospital study changes in cerebral blood flow by injecting test subjects with spinal anesthesia, inserting needles in their jugular veins and brachial arteries, tilting their heads down and, after massive blood loss causes paralysis and fainting, measuring their blood pressure. They often perform this experiment multiple times on the same subject.

Dr. D. Ewen Cameronlater of MKULTRA infamy due to his 1957 to 1964 experiments on Canadians, publishes an article in the British Journal of Physical Medicine, in which he describes experiments that entail forcing schizophrenic patients at Manitoba’s Brandon Mental Hospital to lie naked under 15- to 200-watt red lamps for up to eight hours per day. His other experiments include placing mental patients in an electric cage that overheats their internal body temperatures to 103 degrees Fahrenheit, and inducing comas by giving patients large injections of insulin.

1950-1953

An array of biological weapons agents is allegedly used against North Korea. Accounts claim that there were releases of feathers infected with anthrax, fleas and mosquitoes dosed with Plague and Yellow Fever, and rodents infected with a variety of diseases. The Eisenhower Administration later pressed Sedition Charges against three Americans who published charges of these activities, however, none of those charged were convicted.
 


1951

The U.S. Navy’s Project Bluebird is renamed Project Artichoke and begins human medical experiments that test the effectiveness of LSD, sodium pentothal and hypnosis for the interrogative purposes described in Project Bluebird’s objectives.

The Department of Defense begins open air tests using disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.

The U.S. Army secretly contaminates the Norfolk Naval Supply Center in Virginia and Washington, D.C.’s National Airport with a strain of bacteria chosen because African-Americans were believed to be more susceptible to it than Caucasians. The experiment causes food poisoning, respiratory problems, and blood poisoning.

American, Canadian and British military and intelligence officials gather a small group of eminent psychologists to a secret meeting at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Montreal about Communist “thought-control techniques.” They propose the establishment of a top-secret research program on behavior modification -- involving psychoactive drug administration, hypnosis, electroshock, and lobotomies on humans.

1951-1952

Researchers withhold insulin from diabetic patients for up to two days in order to observe the effects of diabetes; some test subjects go into diabetic comas.

1951-1956

Under contract with the Air Force’s School of Aviation Medicine (SAM), the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston begins studying the effects of radiation on cancer patients -- many of them members of minority groups or indigents, according to sources -- in order to determine both the radiation’s ability to treat cancer and the possible long-term effects radiation exposure to pilots flying nuclear-powered planes. The study lasts until 1956, involving 263 cancer patients. Beginning in 1953, the subjects are required to sign a waiver form, but it still does not meet the informed consent guidelines established by the Wilson memo released that year. The TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) studies themselves would continue at four different institutions -- Baylor University College of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Bethesda and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine -- until 1971.

1952

Military scientists use the Dugway Proving Ground -- which is located 87 miles southwest of Salt Lake City, Utah -- in a series of experiments to determine how Brucella suis (Link 1, Link 2 - Swine brucellosis is a zoonotic contagion affecting pigs, caused by the bacterium Brucella suis) and Brucella melitensis spread in human populations. Today, over a half-century later, some experts claim that we are all infected with these agents as a result of these experiments.

In a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored experiment, Henry Blauer dies after he is injected with mescaline at Columbia University’s New York State Psychiatric Institute.

At the famous Sloan-Kettering Institute, Chester M. Southam injects live cancer cells into prisoners at the Ohio State Prison to study the progression of the disease. Half of the prisoners in this National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study are black, reviving racial suspicions stemming from Tuskegee, which was also an NIH-sponsored experiment.


1953

U.S. military service personnel release several concentrations of zinc cadmium sulfide gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to gauge how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents during combat operations.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

Toxicologic Assessment of the Army’s Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Test

Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii (Bacillus globigii is a phylogenetically distinct specieal variant of Bacillus subtilis that was used as a biowarfare stimulant during Project SHAD, the SHAD acronym representing Shipboard Hazard and Defense; the former derivative now being classified as Bacillus atrophaeus).

The CIA initiates Project MKULTRA (Link 1, Link 2). This is an eleven year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine studies at the University of Iowa. In the first study, researchers give pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 (Link 1, Link 2) and then study the women's aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. In the second study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 pounds iodine-131 either orally or via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of iodine in the newborns' thyroid glands.

Secretary of Defense Charles Wilson issues the Wilson memo, a top-secret document establishing the Nuremberg Code as Department of Defense policy on human experimentation. The Wilson memo requires voluntary, written consent from a human medical research subject after he or she has been informed of “the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonably to be expected; and effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment.” It also insists that doctors only use experimental treatments when other methods have failed.

As part of an AEC study, researchers feed 28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine in the infants’ thyroid glands 24 hours later.

In an AEC-sponsored study at the University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two- to three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads (RAdiation Doses) of iodine-131.

Newborn Daniel Burton becomes blind when physicians at Brooklyn Doctors Hospital perform an experimental high oxygen treatment for Retrolental Fibroplasia, a retinal disorder affecting premature infants, on him and other premature babies. The physicians perform the experimental treatment despite earlier studies showing that high oxygen levels cause blindness. Testimony in Burton v. Brooklyn Doctors Hospital (452 N.Y.S.2d875) later reveals that researchers continued to give Burton and other infants excess oxygen even after their eyes had swelled to dangerous levels.

The CIA begins Project MKDELTA to study the use of biochemicals “for harassment, discrediting and disabling purposes.”

A 1953 article in Clinical Science describes a medical experiment in which researchers purposely blister the abdomens of 41 children, ranging in age from eight to 14, with cantharidin in order to study how severely the substance irritates the skin.

The AEC performs a series of field tests known as “Green Run,” dropping iodine-131 and xenon-133 over the Hanford, Wash. site -- 500,000 acres encompassing three small towns (Hanford, White Bluffs and Richland) along the Columbia River.

In an AEC-sponsored study to learn whether radioactive iodine affects premature babies differently from full-term babies, researchers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing between 2.1 and 5.5 pounds.

1953-1957

Eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium as part of the Manhattan Project.

1953-1974

CIA Director Allen Dulles authorizes the MKULTRA program to produce and test drugs and biological agents that the CIA could use for mind control and behavior modification. MKULTRA later becomes well known for its pioneering studies on LSD, which are often performed on prisoners or patrons of brothels set up and run by the CIA. The brothel experiments, known as “Operation Midnight Climax,” feature two-way mirrors set up in the brothels so that CIA agents can observe LSD’s effects on sexual behavior.



Ironically, governmental figures sometimes slip LSD into each other’s drinks as part of the program, resulting in the LSD psychosis-induced suicide of Dr. Frank Olson indirectly at the hands of MKULTRA’s infamous key player Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. Of all the hundreds of human test subjects used during MKULTRA, only 14 are ever notified of the involvement and only one is ever compensated ($15,000). Most of the MKULTRA files are eventually destroyed in 1973.

1954

The CIA begins Project QKHILLTOP to study Chinese Communist Party brainwashing techniques and use them to further the CIA’s own interrogative methods. Most experts speculate that the Cornell University Medical School Human Ecology Studies Program conducted Project QKHILLTOP’s early experiments.

In a general memo to university researchers under contract with the military, the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army asserts the human experimentation guidelines -- including informed, written consent -- established in the classified Wilson memo.

1954-1975

U.S. Air Force medical officers assigned to Fort Detrick’s Chemical Corps Biological Laboratory begin Operation Whitecoat (Link 1, Link 2) -- experiments involving the exposure of human test subjects to Hepatitis A, Plague, Yellow Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (Also known as Venezuelan Equine Encephmyelitis - Link 1, Link 2), Rift Valley Fever, Rickettsia, and intestinal microbes. These test subjects include 2,300 Seventh Day Adventist military personnel, who choose to become human guinea pigs rather than potentially kill others in combat. Only two of the 2,300 claim long-term medical complications as a result of their participation in the study.

1955

The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn from the Army’s biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, FL. Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.

In U.S. Army-sponsored experiments performed at Tulane University, mental patients are given LSD and other drugs and then have electrodes implanted in their brain to monitor its effects.

1955-1957

In order to learn how cold weather affects human physiology, researchers give a total of 200 doses of iodine-131, a radioactive trace element that concentrates almost immediately in the thyroid gland, to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athabaskan Indians living in Alaska. They study the trace element’s effects within the body by blood, thyroid tissue, urine, and saliva samples from the test subjects. Due to the language barrier, no one tells the test subjects what is being done to them, so there is no informed consent.

1955-1965

As a result of their work with the CIA’s mind control experiments in Project QKHILLTOP, Cornell neurologists Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle found the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology (later renamed the Human Ecology Fund) to study “man’s relation to his social environment as perceived by him.” 


1956



In Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida, the Army carries out several field tests in which mosquitoes harboring the bacterial remnants responsible for both Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever
were released into residential neighborhoods from both ground level and from aircraft. Many people are swarmed by mosquitoes, eventually falling ill, with some succumbing to the effects of the zoonotic ailments. After each test, U.S. Army personnel posing as public health officials photographed and tested the victims. It is theorized that the mosquitoes were infected with a strain of Yellow Fever. However, details of the testing remain classified. These experiments result in a high incidence of fevers, respiratory distress, stillbirths, encephalitis, and typhoid among the two cities’ residents, as well as numerous confirmed mortalities.

1957

The U.S. military conducts Operation Plumbbob at the Nevada Test Site, 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Operation Plumbbob consists of 29 nuclear detonations, eventually creating radiation expected to result in a total 32,000 cases of thyroid cancer among civilians in the area. Around 18,000 members of the U.S. military participate in Operation Plumbbob’s Desert Rock VII and VIII, which are designed to gauge the average foot soldier’s physiological and mental response time in the event of their deployment into the throes of nuclear conflagration.

In order to study how blood flows through children’s brains, researchers at Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia perform the following experiment on healthy children, ranging in age from three to 11: They insert needles into each child’s femoral artery (thigh) and jugular vein (neck), bringing the blood down from the brain. Then, they force each child to inhale a special gas through a facemask. In their subsequent Journal of Clinical Investigation article on this study, the researchers note that, in order to perform the experiment, they had to restrain some of the child test subjects by fastening them to boards.  


1957-1964

For his participatory role in MKULTRA, the CIA pays McGill University Department of Psychiatry founder Dr. D. Ewen Cameron $69,000 to perform LSD studies and potentially lethal experiments on Canadians being treated for minor disorders like post-partum depression and anxiety at the Allan Memorial Institute, which houses the Psychiatry Department of the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal. The CIA encourages Dr. Cameron to fully explore his “psychic driving” concept of correcting madness through completely erasing one’s memory and rewriting the psyche. These “driving” experiments involve putting human test subjects into drug-, electroshock- and sensory deprivation-induced vegetative states for up to three months, and then playing tape loops of noise or simple repetitive statements for weeks or months in order to “rewrite” the “erased” psyche. Dr. Cameron also gives human test subjects paralytic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy 30 to 40 times, as part of his experiments. A vast majority of Dr. Cameron’s test subjects suffer permanent damage as a result of his work.


1958

LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army’s Chemical Warfare Laboratories in an effort to ascertain its cumulative effects on cognitive recognition.

Approximately 300 members of the U.S. Navy are exposed to radiation when the Navy destroyer Mansfield detonates 35 nuclear bombs off the coasts of Pacific Islands during Operation Hardtack I.

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename “Project Chariot."

1960

The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence (ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing of the European population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

DEPARTMENT OF ARMY REPORT ON THE USE OF CHEMICAL AGENT RESEARCH, INTELLIGENCE CORPS EXPERIMENTATION WITH HALLUCINOGENIC DRUGS

1961

In response to the Nuremberg Trials, Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram begins his famous Obedience to Authority Study (Later identified as the Milgram Experiment) in order to answer his question “Could it be that (Adolf) Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?” Male test subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 40 and coming from all educational backgrounds, are told to give “learners” electric shocks for every wrong answer the learners give in response to word pair questions. In reality, the learners are actors and are not receiving electric shocks, but what matters is that the test subjects do not know that. Astoundingly, they keep on following orders and continue to administer increasingly high levels of “shocks,” even after the actor learners evince obvious physical pain.

1962

Researchers at the Laurel Children’s Center in Maryland test experimental acne antibiotics on children and continue their tests even after half of the young test subjects experience severe liver complications because of the experimental medication.

The U.S. Army’s Deseret Test Center begins Project 112. This includes SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), which exposes U.S. Navy and Army personnel to live toxins and chemical poisons in order to determine naval ships’ vulnerability to chemical and biological weapons agents. Military personnel are not intended to serve as test subjects; conducting the tests exposes them to these contagions. Many of these participants complain of negative health effects at the time, and, decades later, suffer from severe medical problems as a result of their exposure.

The FDA begins requiring that new pharmaceutical derivatives undergo three human clinical trials before authorizing their approval for purchase by prospective consumers. From 1962 to 1980, pharmaceutical companies satisfy this requirement by running Phase I trials, which determine a drug’s toxicity, on prison inmates, giving them small amounts of cash for compensation.

1963

Chester M. Southam, who injected Ohio State Prison inmates with live cancer cells in 1952, performs the same procedure on 22 senile, African-American female patients at the Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in order to watch their immunological response. Southam tells the patients that they are receiving “some cells,” but leaves out the fact that they are cancer cells. He claims he doesn't obtain informed consent from the patients because he does not want to frighten them by telling them what he is doing, but he nevertheless temporarily loses his medical license because of it. Ironically, he eventually becomes president of the American Cancer Society.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

NYC’s Forgotten Cancer Scandal

Researchers at the University of Washington directly irradiate the testes of 232 prison inmates in order to determine radiation's effects on testicular function. When these inmates later leave prison and have children, at least four have babies conceived with birth defects. The exact number is unknown because researchers never follow up on the men to see the long-term effects of their experiment.

In a National Institutes of Health-sponsored (NIH) study, a researcher transplants a chimpanzee’s kidney into a human. The experiment is unsuccessful.

Researchers inject a genetic compound called radioactive thymidine into the testicles of more than 100 Oregon State Penitentiary inmates to learn whether sperm production is affected by exposure to steroid hormones.

1963-1966

New York University researcher Saul Krugman promises parents with mentally disabled children definite enrollment into the Willowbrook State School in Staten Island, N.Y., a resident mental institution for developmentally maladjusted children, in exchange for their signatures on a consent form for procedures presented as “vaccinations.” In reality, the procedures involve deliberately infecting children with viral Hepatitis by feeding them an extract made from the feces of infected patients, so that Krugman can study the course of viral Hepatitis as well the effectiveness of a Hepatitis vaccine.

1963-1971

Leading endocrinologist Dr. Carl Heller gives 67 prison inmates at Oregon State Prison in Salem $5 per month and $25 per testicular tissue biopsy in compensation for allowing him to perform irradiation experiments on their testes. If they receive vasectomies at the end of the study, the prisoners are given an extra $100.

1964-1967

The Dow Chemical Company pays Professor Albert Kligman $10,000 to learn how dioxin (Link 1, Link 2, Link 3, Link 4) -- a highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange -- and other herbicides affect human skin because workers at the chemical plant have been developing an acne-like condition called Chloracne and the company would like to know whether the chemicals they are handling are to blame. As part of the study, Professor Kligman applies roughly the amount of dioxin Dow employees are exposed to on the skin 60 prisoners, and is disappointed when the prisoners show no symptoms of Chloracne. In 1980 and 1981, the human guinea pigs used in this study would begin suing Professor Kligman for complications including lupus and psychological damage.


1964-1968

The U.S. Army pays $386,486 (the largest sum ever paid for human experimentation) to University of Pennsylvania Professors Albert Kligman and Herbert W. Copelan to run medical experiments on 320 inmates of Holmesburg Prison to determine the effectiveness of seven mind-altering drugs. The researchers’ objective is to determine the minimum effective dose of each drug needed to disable 50 percent of any given population (MED-50). Though Professors Kligman and Copelan claim that they are unaware of any long-term effects the mind-altering agents might have on prisoners, documents revealed later would prove otherwise.

1965

The CIA and the Department of Defense implement Project MKSEARCH (Formerly known as MKULTRA), a program to develop the capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering substances.

Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia are exposed to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Vietnam. The men are later studied for development of cancer, which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along. The following articles of reference and visual establishing the connection between the release of these toxins and Monsanto Corporation:



LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

Agent Orange: Background on Monsanto’s Involvement
Monsanto’s Agent Orange Continues to Cause Cancer

The Department of Defense uses human test subjects wearing rubber clothing and M9A1 masks to conduct 35 trials near Fort Greely, Alaska, as part of the Elk Hunt tests, which are designed to measure the amount of VX (The utilization of the ‘V’ prefix an instrument of representation for, depending on the source being specified, one of the following pejoratives: Victory, Venomous, or Viscous) nerve agent put on the clothing of people moving through VX-contaminated areas or touching contaminated vehicles, and the amount of VX vapor rising from these areas. After the tests, the subjects are decontaminated using wet steam and high-pressure cold water. The following cinematic presentation documents the effects of VX nerve agents upon their subsequent exposure to the human anatomy:


As part of a test codenamed “Big Tom," the Department of Defense sprays Oahu, Hawaii’s most densely populated island, with Bacillus globigii in order to simulate an attack on an island complex. Bacillus globigii causes infections in people with weakened immune systems, but this was not known to scientists at the time.
1966

The CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals. U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis specieal variant Niger throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians are exposed when army scientists drop light bulbs filled with the bacteria onto ventilation grates. The following articles of reference validate these assertions:

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

1966 - The Year the U.S. Army Dispensed Bacillus Subtilis Variant Niger Throughout the New York City Subway System
Documenting the Events Surrounding the Biochemical Exercises of 1966 - U.S. Military Inundated New York City’s Subway System With Bacterial Agents of Infection

Dr. Henry Beecher writes, “The well-being, the health, even the actual or potential life of all human beings, born or unborn, depend upon the continuing experimentation in man. Proceed it must; proceed it will. ‘The proper study of mankind is man,’” in his “exposé” on human medical experimentation ‘Research and the Individual.’

The National Commission for the Protection of Research Subjects issues its Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, which eventually creates what we now know as institutional review boards (IRBs).


1967


Continuing on his Dow Chemical Company-sponsored dioxin study without the company’s knowledge or consent, University of Pennsylvania Professor Albert Kligman increases the dosage of dioxin he applies to 10 prisoners’ skin to 7,500 micrograms, 468 times the dosage Dow official Gerald K. Rowe had authorized him to administer. As a result, the prisoners experience acne lesions that develop into inflammatory pustules and papules.

In a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers inject pregnant women with radioactive cortisol to see if the radioactive material will cross the placentas and affect the fetuses.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

Maternal-Fetal Distribution of Radioactive Cortisol and its Correlation With the Teratogenic Effect

The CIA and Department of Defense implement Project MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test biological and chemical weapons.


The U.S. Army pays Professor Kligman to apply skin-blistering chemical agents to Holmesburg Prison inmates’ faces and backs, so as to, in Professor Kligman’s words, “learn how the skin protects itself against chronic assault from toxic chemicals, the so-called hardening process,” information which would have serve as both offensive and defensive applications for the U.S. military.

The CIA and Edgewood Arsenal Research Laboratories begin an extensive program for developing drugs that can influence human behavior. This program includes Project OFTEN (Later identified as Project MKOFTEN) -- which studies the toxicology, transmission and behavioral effects of drugs in animal and human subjects -- and Project CHICKWIT (Later identified as Project MKCHICKWIT),
which gathers European and Asian drug development information.

Professor Kligman patents the development of Retin-A as an acne cream (and eventually a wrinkle cream), turning him into a multi-millionaire.

Researchers paralyze 64 prison inmates in California with a neuromuscular compound called succinylcholine (Also known as Suxamethonium chloride or suxamethonium), which produces suppressed breathing that feels similar to drowning. When five prisoners refuse to participate in the medical experiment, the prison’s special treatment board gives researchers permission to inject the prisoners with the drug against their will.


1968

The CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in Washington, D.C. There were no harmful effects noted from this experiment. However, none of the human subjects in the building were ever asked for their permission, nor was anyone provided with information on the nature or effects of the chemical used.

Planned Parenthood of San Antonio and South Central Texas and the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education begin an oral contraceptive study on 70 poverty-stricken Mexican-American women, giving only half the oral contraceptives they think they are receiving and the other half a placebo. When the results of this study are released a few years later, it stirs tremendous controversy among Mexican-Americans.


1969

On June 9, 1969, Dr. Donald M. MacArthur, then Deputy Director of Research and Technology for the Department of Defense, appeared before the House Subcommittee on Appropriations to request funding for a project to produce a synthetic biological agent for which humans have not yet acquired a natural immunity. Dr. MacArthur petitions this request for $10 million dollars to fund the research and production of this agent over the next 5 to10 years. The Congressional Record reveals that according to the plan for the development of this germ agent, the most important characteristic of the new disease would be “that it might be refractory [resistant] to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease.” AIDS first appeared as a public health risk ten years later, appearing first in a population of gay men who had been subjects in a test of a new Hepatitis vaccine. In 1989, work by Alan Cantwell Jr., M.D. linking AIDS to the Hepatitis B viral vaccine experiments was suppressed at the 1989 AIDS International Conference by officials of the World Health Organization.

President Nixon ends the United States’ offensive biowarfare program, including human experimentation done at Fort Detrick. By this time, tens of thousands of civilians and members of the U.S. Armed Forces have wittingly and unwittingly acted as participants in experiments involving exposure to dangerous biological agents.

The U.S. military conducts DTC Test 69-12 (Deseret Test Center Test 69-12), which is an open-air test of VX and sarin nerve agents (Link 1, Link 2, Link 3) at the Army’s Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, likely exposing military personnel.

Experimental drugs are tested on mentally disabled children in Milledgeville, GA, without any institutional approval.

Judge Sam Steinfield’s dissent in Strunk v. Strunk, 445 S.W.2d 145 marks the first time a judge has ever suggested that the Nuremberg Code be applied in American court cases.


1970

Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained under HB 15090 (House Bill 15090). The following cinematic excerpt and correspondent articles of reference elaborate on the context of this measure in its totality:


LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

House of Representatives Bill 15090
House of Representatives Bill 15090 - The Appropriation of Funding for the Development of the ESP-1 (HIV) AIDS Virus
Transcript of House of Representatives Bill 15090 - Establishing Conclusive Proof That the Department of Defense Petitioned the Allocation of Funds in the Amount of $10 Million From Congress to Fund the Creation of a Synthetically Engineered Biological Agent
AIDS: ‘The Man Made Plague’

The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army’s top secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses. United States intensifies its development of “ethnic weapons” (Military Review, Nov. 1970), designed to selectively target and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic differences and variations in DNA. The following illustrative composites detailing these findings in greater detail:






Under order from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which also sponsored the Tuskegee Experiment, the free childcare program at Johns Hopkins University collects blood samples from 7,000 African-American youth, telling their parents that they are checking for anemia but actually checking for an extra Y chromosome (XYY), believed to be a biological predisposition to crime. The program director, Digamber S. Borganokar, does this experiment without Johns Hopkins University’s permission.

1971

President Nixon converts Fort Detrick from an offensive biowarfare lab to the Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, now known as the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. In addition to cancer research, scientists study virology, immunology, and retroviriology (including HIV) there. Additionally, the site is home to the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute, which researches drugs, vaccines and countermeasures for biological warfare, so the former Fort Detrick does not move far away from its biowarfare past.

Stanford University conducts the Stanford Prison Experiment on a group of college students in order to learn the psychology of prison life. Some students are given the role as prison guards, while the others are given the role of prisoners. After only six days, the proposed two-week study has to end because of its psychological effects on the participants. The “guards” had begun exhibiting sadistic tendencies, while the “prisoners” started to show signs of depression and severe psychological stress.

An article entitled “Viral Infections in Man Associated with Acquired Immunological Deficiency States” appears in Federation Proceedings. Dr. MacArthur and Fort Detrick’s Special Operations Division have, at this point, been conducting mycoplasma research to create a synthetic immunosuppressive agent for about one year, again suggesting that this research may have produced HIV.

1972

In studies sponsored by the U.S. Air Force, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi administers LSD to mental patients at the University of Missouri Institute of Psychiatry and the University of Minnesota Hospital to study “ego strength.”

President Nixon announced a ban on the production and use of biological (but not chemical) warfare agents. However, as the Army’s own experts reveal, this ban is meaningless because the studies required to protect against biological warfare weapons are generally indistinguishable from those crafted to develop the actual chemical weapons agents. Research on offensive bio-war continued under the justification that such research was a necessary pre-cursor to defensive bio-warfare capability.

Documents substantiating claims proffered by independent investigative panels concerning the trade and distribution of biological weapons agents, including the most advanced biomolecularly engineered cancer viruses, by the United States to the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
during the Cold War are formulated by the US-USSR Joint Working Group on Cancer Virology and the Federal Government. A fact evidenced in the following visuals:
 


1975

The virus section of Fort Detrick’s Center for Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S. Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).

1977

Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included are San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.

Ray Ravenholt, director of the population program of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), publicly announced the agency’s goal to sterilize one quarter of the world's women. In reports by the St Louis Post-Dispatch, Ravenholt in essence cited the reasoning for this being U.S. corporate interests in avoiding the threat of revolutions which might be spawned by chronic unemployment. Since then, allegations have surfaced that free vaccinations being given by the World Health Organization include a “pregnancy anti-body” which fools a woman’s body into treating a pregnancy as an infection.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

The Charge: Gynocide


1978

Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Ads for research subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.


1979

Methodology ascribed to the subject of population reduction experiments in accordance with NSSM 200 has become more covert. An organization in Belgium called the “World Federation Of Doctors who value life” claims to have discovered a sterilizing agent in the tetanus vaccines being used in third world nations by the World Health Organization. The claim is supported by the fact that only women were given the multi-injection tetanus shots (normal tetanus shots only require a single injection). Villagers in India were offered cash payments on the condition that 75 percent of all men in the village submit to vasectomy. In another Indian village, “100 percent of the eligible couples” were reported to have accepted family planning, mostly by means of vasectomy, in exchange for a new village well.

1980-1981

Within months of their incarceration in detention centers in Miami and Puerto Rico, many male Haitian refugees developed an unusual condition called “gynecomastia." This is a condition in which males develop full female breasts. A number of the internees at Ft. Allen in Puerto Rico claimed that they were forced to undergo a series of injections which they believed to be hormones. When “Inside Investigations” showed a prison video of serial killer Richard Speck engaging in drugs and sex, the appearance of female breast tissue was evident.


More than 300,000 Cubans were stricken with Dengue hemorrhagic fever. An investigation by the magazine ‘Covert Action Information Bulletin,’ which tracks the workings of various intelligence agencies around the world, suggested that this outbreak was the result of a release of mosquitoes by Cuban counterrevolutionaries. The magazine tracked the activities of one CIA operative from a facility in Panama to the alleged Cuban connections. During the last 30 years, Cuba has been subjected to an enormous number of outbreaks of human and crop diseases which are difficult to attribute solely to natural causes.


1981

The first cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual men in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, triggering speculation that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine.

1982

El Salvadoran trade unionists claim that epidemics of many previously unknown diseases had cropped up in areas immediately after U.S. directed aerial bombing campaigns.

1985

According to the journal Science (227:173-177), HTLV and VISNA (Visna/ maedi virus), a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.

An outbreak of Dengue Fever strikes Managua, Nicaragua shortly after an increase of U.S. aerial reconnaissance missions. Nearly half of the capital city’s population is stricken with the disease, and several deaths are later attributed to the outbreak. It was the first such epidemic in the country and the outbreak was nearly identical to that which struck Cuba a few years earlier (1981). Dengue Fever variations were the focus of much experimentation at the Army’s Biological Warfare test facility at Ft. Dietrick, Maryland prior to the ‘ban’ on such research in 1972.


In ruling on a case in which a former U.S. Army Sergeant attempted to bring a lawsuit against the Army for using experimental drugs on him, without prior knowledge or consent, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that allowing such an action against the military would disrupt the chain of command. Thus, nearly all potential actions against the military for past, or future, misdeeds have been barred as have actions aimed at the release of classified documents on the subject.


1986

According to the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and VISNA are highly similar - exhibiting structural commonality, except for a small segment which is nearly identical to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists. A Congressional report reveals that the U.S. Government’s current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering to change immunological attribution and negate treatment capability typically afforded to prospective consumers through inoculation.

1987

As the result of a lawsuit by a public interest group, the Department of Defense was forced to reveal that, despite a treaty banning research and development of biological agents, it still operated Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) research programs at 127 sites around the United States.


1990

More than 1,500 six-month old black and Hispanic infants in Los Angeles are given an “experimental” measles vaccine that had never been licensed for use in the United States. The CDC later admits that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their children was experimental.

1992
 
The Michigan Supreme Court rules that the state court appellate has the right to order sterilizations “for the good of the ward.”


1994

With a technique called “gene tracking,” Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe oftentimes associated with the manufacture and distribution of biological weapons.


Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40 percent of the HIV protein sheath, indicating that it had been man-made. Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments, intentionally exposing servicemen and women to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve gas, ionizing radiation, psychoactive agents, hallucinogens, and drugs used during the Gulf War. The following articles of reference offering a greater degree of insight into the aforementioned topic of discussion:

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

Pathogenic Mycoplasma - Establishing its Connection to the Incidence of Neurosystemic Disorders
Mycoplasma Incognitus | Genus and Pathology
US Army Mycoplasma Fermentans Incognitus Patent

US Patent #5,242,820 A | Pathogenic Mycoplasma Strain
US Patent #5,534,413 A | Invasive and Adherent Mycoplasma



US Patent #5,242,820 A
Date of Patent: September 7, 1993

(Column 1, Lines 18-25)
“The present invention relates to a novel strain of mycoplasma isolated from a patient with AIDS. The mycoplasma is closely related to a species of human mycoplasma, M. fermentans. Upon characterization of this mycoplasma, it may be classified as a unique strain within the species M. fermentans incognitus. This novel strain of mycoplasma is referred to hereinafter as the incognitus strain or M. fermentans incognitus.”

(Column 23, Lines 5-12)
“In addition to AIDS, M. fermentans has been implicated in a number of other Disease states including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Wegener’s Disease (Commonly referred in medicinal circles as Wegener’s granulomatosis), Sarcoidosis, respiratory distress syndrome, Kikuchi’s disease, autoimmune diseases such as Collagen Vascular Disease and lupus, and chronic debilitating diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. M. fermentans incognitus may either be a causative agent of these diseases or a key co-factor in these diseases.”

(Column 23, Lines 15-30)
“M. fermentans incognitus is known to be sensitive to a number of antibiotics, including doxycycline, quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Therefore, effective treatment of any of the above implicated diseases should include administration of antibiotics to which M. fermentans incognitus is sensitive. When using the effective antibiotics as the active ingredients of pharmaceutical compositions, the pharmaceutical compositions may be administered by a variety of routes including oral, intravenous, aerosol, and parenteral. The amount of active ingredient (antibiotic) necessary to treat an M. fermentans incognitus infection will depend on the body weight of the patient, but will usually be from about 0.001 to about 100 mg/ kg of body weight, two to four times daily.”

Pleomorphism - In microbiological studies, pleomorphism is recognized as the ability of certain strains of bacteria to effectively alter their size/ aspect ratio in response to their environmental surroundings.


The Riegle Report | U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare Experimentation During the Persian Gulf War
 
Written publication of the Riegle Report, a summation authored by Donald M. Riegle, Jr. and Ranking Member Alfonse M. D’Amato of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs with Respect to Export Administration, is formally constructed. The Riegle Report is a written account possessing the subtitle of 'U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual Use Exports to Iraq and Their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Gulf War.'

Documented abuses of American sponsored population control agendas start to surface around the world.

Mr. Leanardo Casco, a member of the Honduran delegation to the 1994 United Nations World Population Conference in Cairo said, “In our hospitals and in our health care system, we have a lot of problems getting basic medicines -- things like penicillin and antibiotics. There is a terrible shortage of basic medicines, but you can find the cabinets full of condoms, pills, and IUDs (Intrauterine devices)."

Dr. Stephen K. Karanja, an obstetrician/gynecologist from Kenya, writes, “[T]housands of the Kenyan people will die of Malaria whose treatment costs a few cents, in health facilities whose stores are stocked [sic] to the roof with millions of dollars worth of pills, IUDs, Norplant, Depo-provera, most of which are supplied with American money.”
  

On May 6, 1994 Dr. Leonard A. Cole, a Professor of Science and Public Policy in Newark, New Jersey gave the following testimony with regard to the military practice of open air testing with simulated biological and chemical warfare agents before the United States Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs:

My name is Leonard A. Cole, and I teach science and public policy at Rutgers University in Newark. My research interests include biological and chemical warfare policies, and I have written in particular about testing done in the U.S Army’s biological defense program.

I appreciate your invitation, Senator Rockefeller, to testify about experiments involving simulated biological and chemical warfare agents. These agents, which the army calls simulants, are intended to mimic more lethal bacteria and chemicals that might be used in actual warfare.

As described in my book, Clouds of Secrecy, the army began a program in 1949 to assess the nation’s vulnerability to attack with biological weapons. During the next 20 years, the army released simulant agents over hundreds of populated areas around the country. Targets included portions of Hawaii and Alaska, San Francisco, St. Louis, Minneapolis, New York City, Washington, D.C., Key West, and many other cities. The purpose was to see how the bacteria spread and survived as people went about their normal activities.
Evidence suggested that the tests may have been causing illness to exposed citizens. Nevertheless, as army spokesmen subsequently testified, the health of the millions of people exposed was never monitored because the army assumed that the bacteria and chemicals were harmless.
Vulnerability testing continues at Dugway Proving Ground, 70 miles from Salt Lake City. Several smaller communities are closer to the base, and Dugway itself is home to hundreds of civilians and military personnel and their families. The stated purpose of the tests is to evaluate biological detector systems and protective gear.
Since tests involve spraying simulants outdoors, it is important to understand how much risk they pose to humans who are exposed. Official statements have not always been clear on this matter. A July 1993 news release by the Dugway Public Affairs Office indicates that “no specific safety controls or protection are required for testing with simulants.” The statement implies, erroneously, that the simulants are harmless.
In fact, during 45 years of open air testing, from time to time the army has stopped using certain simulants for reasons of safety. In each instance the army belatedly recognized they could be causing disease and death, although such information had long been available in the medical literature. This was the case in the 1950s when it ceased using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (Link 1, Link 2as a simulant. The fungus had long been known to cause aspergillosis, a disease that can be fatal. Similarly, in the 1960s the army stopped using zinc cadmium sulfide, a chemical that had been known for years to cause cancer.
In the 1970s, the bacterium Serratia marcescens, a source of infections that can lead to death, was taken out of service as a simulant. And in the 1980s, dimethyl methylphosphonate (Link 1, Link 2), a chemical known as DPP, was removed from use as a simulant because of its carcinogenic and other toxic potential. I understand that one of today's witnesses, Earl Davenport, was exposed to DMMP at Dugway in 1984 and may still be suffering health problems as a result.
Indeed, simulants now used at Dugway continue to pose risks. The chemical ethylene oxide, which is present in some of the mixtures used in outdoor spraying, is a known carcinogen. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis, while not generally seen as dangerous, is cited in medical textbooks as able to cause serious infections. In truth any microorganism that seems harmless under some circumstances may cause illness under others.
Exposure to high concentrations of any microorganism can be critically dangerous to people in weakened conditions. The elderly, the very young, people with AIDS and others who have weakened immune systems are more susceptible to life threatening infections. Nevertheless, the army has not monitored the health of citizens who may have been exposed during its tests while maintaining that its bacterial agents cause no harm.
In addition to people who are unwittingly exposed to the army's bacteria and chemicals, human research subjects may not be receiving appropriate information. A test at Dugway in November 1993, for example, raises important questions in this regard. The test was intended to assess the ability of chemical agents to penetrate protective clothing.
Test subjects wore special outer garments and were then sprayed with chemicals in simulated battle conditions. An army Environmental Assessment before the test indicated that some of the chemicals could be toxic. Yet the consent form that the subjects signed in advance of the test said nothing about any of the chemicals.
Subsequently, two of the test subjects said they were asked to sign another consent form sometime after the test had been completed. The second form described the chemicals. But having the subjects sign a consent form after an experiment, rather than before, makes little ethical sense. The procedure renders meaningless the notion of informed consent.
Finally, several physicians at the University of Utah Medical School in Salt Lake City continue to express concern about the tests at Dugway. They do not feel they have information that would enable them optimally to handle infections and complications that might be caused by the tests. Dugway officials have thus far not satisfied their concerns either about field tests involving simulants or indoor tests with highly pathogenic agents.
These are a few of the disconcerting issues associated with testing at Dugway. If such tests must continue, several policy suggestions seem appropriate:

Inform people in the area before each test that they may be exposed to the army's biological and chemical agents.

For a substantial period after each test, monitor the health of the exposed population.

Provide comprehensive information in understandable language to human subjects before they participate in any test.

Fully inform the neighboring medical community about the nature of each test and its possible medical complications.


Above all, strive for safety, candor, and openness.


1995

U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological warfare research. Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, FL and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.


A 19-year-old University of Rochester student named Nicole Wan dies from participating in an MIT-sponsored experiment that tests airborne pollutant chemicals on humans. The experiment pays $150 to human test subjects.

In the Mar. 15 President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE), former human subjects, including those who were used in experiments as children, give sworn testimonies stating that they were subjected to radiation experiments and/or brainwashed, hypnotized, drugged, psychologically tortured, threatened and even raped during CIA experiments. These sworn statements include:

Christina DeNicola’s statement that, in Tucson, Ariz., from 1966 to 1976, “Dr. B” performed mind control experiments using drugs, post-hypnotic injection and drama, and irradiation experiments on her neck, throat, chest and uterus. She was only four years old when the experiments started.

Claudia Mullen’s testimony that Dr. Sidney Gottlieb (of MKULTRA fame) used chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, drugs, isolation in tubs of water, sleep deprivation, electric shock, brainwashing and emotional, sexual and verbal abuse as part of mind control experiments that had the ultimate objective of turning her, who was only a child at the time, into the “perfect spy.” She tells the advisory committee that researchers justified this abuse by telling her that she was serving her country “in their bold effort to fight Communism.”

Suzanne Starr’s statement that “a physician, who was retired from the military, got children from the mountains of Colorado for experiments.” She says she was one of those children and that she was the victim of experiments involving environmental deprivation to the point of forced psychosis, spin programming, injections, rape and frequent electroshock and mind control sessions. “I have fought self-destructive programmed messages to kill myself, and I know what a programmed message is, and I don’t act on them,” she tells the advisory committee of the experiments’ long-lasting effects, even in her adulthood.

President Clinton publicly apologizes to the thousands of people who were victims of MKULTRA and other mind-control experimental programs.

President Clinton appoints the National Bioethics Advisory Committee.

Justice Edward Greenfield of the New York State Supreme Court rules that parents do not have the right to volunteer their mentally incapacitated children for non-therapeutic medical research studies and that no mentally incapacitated person whatsoever can be used in a medical experiment without informed consent.

Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, FL; these toxins subsequently tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.


1996

Under pressure from Congress and the public, after a 60 Minutes segment, the U.S. Department of Defense finally admits that at least 20,000 U.S. servicemen “may” have been exposed to chemical weapons during Operation ‘Desert Storm.’ This exposure is claimed to be the result of the destruction of an Iraqi weapons bunker. Similar illnesses of other troops, who were not in the immediate vicinity of the initial blasts, suggest other means of exposure not yet admitted to. Veterans groups have released information that many of the problems may be a result of experimental vaccines and inoculations which were provided to military service personnel during the military buildup.

In testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in June 1996, Christine de Marcellus Vollmer, president of the Latin America Alliance for the Family, said that Latin America perceives Timothy Wirth, Undersecretary of State and top official in charge of U.S. population control policy, as “a ruthless population controller, unashamed of coercive measures and disrespectful” of the human rights of people, particularly women, in developing countries.
Brazilian senator Rosiska Darcy de Olivera condemned the United States for its population reduction programs, which force Brazilian women to undergo sterilization, saying: “To say that women from the South who have many babies are responsible for the environmental crisis -- it’s a scandal.”


1997

The city of Minneapolis is sprayed with chemicals used to test germ warfare techniques over a period of several months, in 61 separate operations. It is assumed that the chemicals are harmless, but there is a noticeable increase in the rates for respiratory illness in the sprayed areas.

Students and faculty at the Jasper School in Arkansas are struck down by a mysterious malady on January 31st that sends many of them to the hospital. Some of the paramedics and emergency workers who arrive at the school later become ill, with the primary symptom being an incapacitating headache, which takes several weeks to subside. Despite constant monitoring of the students by health workers, no cause is ever announced.

Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter demanding an investigation into biological weapons use and their connection to the incidence of Gulf War Syndrome.

2000

Terminal experiments are conducted on women, infants, and men of all age demographics under the guise of scientific research and investigative studies.

The U.S. Air Force and rocket manufacturer Lockheed Martin sponsor a Loma Linda University study that pays 100 Californians $1,000 to eat a dose of perchlorate (Link 1, Link 2) -- a toxic component of rocket fuel that causes cancer, damages the thyroid gland and hinders normal development in children and fetuses -- every day for six months. The dose consumed by the test subjects is 83 times the recommended dose of perchlorate set by the State of California, which has perchlorate in some of its drinking water. This Loma Linda study is the first large-scale study to use human subjects to test the harmful effects of a water pollutant and is “inherently unethical,” according to Environmental Working Group research director Richard Wiles.

2001

Numerous segments of the civilian population along the eastern seaboard of the continental United States are exposed to Anthrax through postal communications, a series of attacks first blamed on Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network, accusations later proven to be unfounded with the strain having been engineered in a biomolecular weapons laboratory - the parties responsible having evaded capture.

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

Anthrax Cover-Up: A Government Insider Reveals the Truth
The 9/11 Anthrax Frame-Up
The Anthrax Conspiracy

On its website, the FDA admits that its policy to include healthy children in human experiments “has led to an increasing number of proposals for studies of safety and pharmacokinetics, including those in children who do not have the condition for which the drug is intended.”

In Higgins and Grimes v. Kennedy Krieger Institute, the Maryland Court of Appeals makes a landmark decision regarding the use of children as test subjects, prohibiting non-therapeutic experimentation on children on the basis of “best interest of the individual child.”

2002

President George W. Bush signs the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA), offering pharmaceutical companies six-month exclusivity in exchange for running clinical drug trials on children. This, of course, increases the number of children used as human test subjects.

2003

Prior to Congress’ authorization of preemptive military operations in Iraq, hundreds of thousands of U.S. service personnel receive a multitudinous array of experimental vaccines.

Two-year-old Michael Daddio of Delaware dies of congestive heart failure. After his death, his parents learn that doctors had performed an experimental surgery on him when he was five months old, rather than using the established surgical method of repairing his congenital heart defect that the parents had been told would be performed. The established procedure has a 90- to 95-percent success rate, whereas the inventor of the procedure performed on infant Daddio would later be fired from his position in the hospital in 2004.

2004

In his BBC documentary “Guinea Pig Kids” and BBC News article of the same name, reporter Jamie Doran reveals that children involved in the New York City foster care system were unwitting human subjects in experimental AIDS drug trials from 1988 to, in his belief, present times.


2005

In response to the BBC documentary and article “Guinea Pig Kids,” the New York City Administration of Children’s Services (ACS) sends out an Apr. 22 press release admitting that foster care children were used in experimental AIDS drug trials, but says that the last trial took place in 2001 and thus the trials are not continuing, as BBC reporter Jamie Doran claims. The ACS gives the extent and statistics of the experimental drug trials, based on its own records, and contracts the Vera Institute of Justice to conduct “an independent review of ACS policy and practice regarding the enrollment of HIV-positive children in foster care in clinical drug trials during the late 1980s and 1990s.”

Bloomberg releases a series of reports suggesting that SFBC (Slade’s Ferry BanCorp), the largest experimental drug testing center of its time, exploits immigrant and other low-income test subjects and runs tests with limited credibility due to violations of both the FDA’s and SFBC’s own testing guidelines.

In October 2005, the American Chemistry Council gave the EPA $2.1 million to study how children ranging from infancy to three years old ingest, inhale or absorb chemicals. Like IG Farben was for the German pharmaceutical companies of Nazi Germany, the American Chemistry Council acts much like a front group for chemical industry bigwigs like Bayer (which was incidentally also a member of IG Farben), BP, Chevron, Dow, DuPont, Exxon, Honeywell, 3M, Monsanto, and Procter & Gamble. Studies have already proven that the chemicals made by these companies have long-term effects on children and adults. A short, two-year study like CHEERS would, of course, fail to reveal these long-term effects and the American Chemistry Council could then publicize these findings as “proof” that its chemicals were safe.

2006-2007

Merck begins pushing U.S. states to mandate the vaccination of teenage girls with Gardasil, a vaccine they claim prevents HPV (Human papillomavirus), a sexually-transmitted virus. In February 2007, Texas Gov. Rick Perry -- who was revealed to have financial ties with Merck, the vaccine manufacturer -- mandates the vaccine in teenage girls. A key Merck lobbyist named Mike Toomey, it turned out, had served as Gov. Rick Perry's chief of staff.
The Texas decision to mandate the vaccine was a notable and troubling milestone in public health policy because it is the first time a vaccine is mandated for a disease that cannot be contracted through casual contact in public schools. It also invoked “gunpoint medicine,” or the threat of arrest at gunpoint for not agreeing to receive state-mandated injections.
The Gardasil vaccinations remain a grand medical experiment being performed on children because it is not yet known what the long-term side effects of the vaccination will be, nor whether the vaccinations will actually lower rates of cervical cancer as intended.

2007

Maryland’s governor and public health officials, fed up with the unwillingness of over 2,000 parents to have their children vaccinated, invoke gunpoint medicine yet again by threatening the parents with arrest and up to 30 days of imprisonment if they don’t submit their children to state-mandated vaccinations. The children and parents are later rounded up at a county courthouse, guarded by attack dogs and security personnel, while a district Judge oversees the mass injection of schoolchildren with vaccines that contain toxic mercury.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

Parents Found to Be in Violation of Maryland State Mandate Concerning the Practice of Inoculation Subject to Incarceration

2008

New Jersey mandates the mass vaccination of all children with four different vaccines, stripping away the health freedoms of parents and unleashing a mass medical experiment that exploits the bodies of children and enriches pharmaceutical companies while criminalizing parents for their refusal to participate.

2009-2013




The bitter legacy pertaining to the mass contamination of Iraq -- and therefore the astronomical increase in the manifestation of genetic abnormalities in infants and children in the region -- through the coordinated release of White Phosphorus and Depleted Uranium in the form of chemical dispersants, explosive ordnance, and mortar shells becomes apparent, the following articles of reference elaborating on the context of these assertions in greater detail:

LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

U.S. Military Service Personnel Repeatedly Fired Depleted Uranium Weapons On Civilian Targets in Iraq Throughout the Better Part of 2003, Latest Report Finds
U.S. Depleted Uranium Weapons Just as Deadly as Syrian Biochemical Weapons Stockpiles
Depleted Uranium and the Iraq War’s Legacy of Cancer
Assessing the United States’ Level of Responsibility With Regard to the Contamination of Iraq With Depleted Uranium

SOURCE ARTICLES OF REFERENCE/ REGISTRY LINKS:

Comprehensive History of Secret Human Experiments Conducted by the U.S. Federal Government
Unethical Human Experimentation in the United States


LETHAL EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF RHESUS MONKEYS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF AN AEROSOLIZED EBOLA VARIANT


The potential of aerogenic infection by Ebola virus was established by using a head-only exposure aerosol system. Virus-containing droplets of 0.8 to 1.2 microns were generated and administered into the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys via inhalation. Inhalation of viral doses as low as 400 plaque-forming units caused a rapidly fatal disease in 4-5 days. The illness was clinically identical to that reported for parental virus inoculation, except for the occurrence of subcutaneous and venipuncture site bleeding and serosanguineous nasal discharge. Immunocytochemistry revealed cell-associated Ebola virus antigens present in airway epithelium, alveolar pneumocytes, and macrophages in the lung and pulmonary lymph nodes; extra cellular antigen was present on mucosal surfaces of the nose, oropharynx and airways. Aggregates of characteristic filamentous virus were present within type I pneumocytes, macrophages, and air spaces of the lung by electron microscopy. Demonstration of fatal aerosol transmission (chemtrail applications through a process of aerated dispersion from specially designed aircraft is a logical conclusion as to why these types of experiments were initially conducted, thereby lending credence to the assertion that such tests are part of a larger, more concerted effort to gauge the physiological effects of these virions on primates prior to their release in the civilian population) of this virus in monkeys reinforces the importance of taking appropriate precautions to prevent its potential aerosol transmission in humans.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:


Lethal Experimental Infections of Rhesus Monkeys Through the Application of an Aeresolized Ebola Variant

THE PATHOLOGY OF EXPERIMENTAL AEROSOLIZED MONKEYPOX VIRAL INFECTION IN CYNOMOLGUS MONKEYS 


Cynomolgus monkeys (Binomial Nomenclature: Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by fine-particle aerosol to lethal doses of monkeypox virus, Zaire strain. Death, attributable to fibrinonecrotic bronchopneumonia, occurred 9 to 17 days postexposure. Lower airway epithelium served as the principal target for primary infection. The relative degree of involvement among lymphoid tissues suggested that tonsil, mediastinal, and mandibular lymph nodes were also infected early in the course of the disease, and may have served as additional, although subordinate, sites of primary replication. The distribution of lesions was consistent with lymphatogenous spread to the mediastinal lymph nodes and systemic dissemination of the virus through a monocytic cell-associated viremia. This resulted in lesions affecting other lymph nodes, the thymus, spleen, skin, oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive system. The mononuclear phagocyte/dendritic cell system was the principal target within lymphoid tissues and may also have provided the means of entry into other systemic sites. Hepatic involvement was uncommon. Lesions at all affected sites were characterized morphologically as necrotizing. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining of select lesions suggested that cell death within lymphoid and epithelial tissues was due in large part to apoptosis. Skin and mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts also exhibited variable proliferation of epithelial cells and subjacent fibroblasts. Epithelial intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, consistent with Guarnieri bodieswere usually inconspicuous by light microscopy, but when present, were most readily apparent in the stratified squamous epithelium of the oral mucosa and epidermis. Multinucleated syncytial cells were also occasionally observed in the stratified squamous epithelium of the tongue, tonsil, and skin, and in the intestinal mucosa. Monkeypox virus antigen was readily demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using anti-vaccinia mouse polyclonal antibodies as well as anti-monkeypox rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Detectable poxviral antigen was limited to sites exhibiting obvious morphologic involvement and was most prominent within epithelial cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts of affected tissues. The presence of poxviral antigen, as determined by immunohistochemistry, correlated with ultrastructural identification of replicating virus. Concurrent bacterial septicemiapresent in one monkey, was associated with increased dissemination of the virus to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow and resulted in a more rapidly fatal clinical course.

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:

The Pathology of Experimental Aerosolized Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys

OTHER MEDICAL ABSTRACTIONS OF MERIT

Aerosol Exposure to the Angola Strain of Marburg Virus Causes Lethal Viral Hemorrhagic Fever in Cynomolgus Macaques

Experimental Marburg Virus Haemorrhagic Fever Infection in the Common Marmoset (Binomial Nomenclature: Callithrix jacchus)
Pathology of Experimental Aerosol Zaire Ebolavirus Infection in Rhesus Macaques
Pathogenesis of Experimental Ebola Zaire Virus Infection in BALB/c Mice (Albino, laboratory-bred strain of the House Mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived)


U.S. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PATENTS

Further insight into the prospect of intergovernmental collusion in reference to the prospect of biomolecularly engineered pathogenic derivatives lies in the existence of various ‘research-specific’ patents, an itemized registry whose existence is substantiated by the following illustrative composites and linked articles of contention: 




LINKED ARTICLES OF REFERENCE:

Patent US7951910 B2 | Peptides With the Marburg I Polymorphism of Factor VII-Activating Protease (FSAP) and Their Preparation and Uses
Patent US8557241 | Secreted Cell Bound Poxvirus Proteins and Methods of Use Thereof as Vaccines and Anti-viral Agents

Recent disclosures by several Alternative Media outlets throughout the continental United States have made mention of the presence of Tulane University Biological Warfare Researchers, as well as their Fort Detrick constituents, within the scientific community in and around the geographical periphery of West Africa, a region of the world since plagued with the worst Ebola outbreak in recorded history - this fact is evidenced in the following:

LINKED ARTICLE OF REFERENCE:


What Possible Reasons Would Various Constituents of the U.S. Biological Warfare Research Community Have For Conducting Operations in Ebola Affected Areas?

Perhaps most alarming, is the attitude of accredited scientists at the collegiate level, specifically Dr. Eric Pianka, a Professor of Biology at the University of Texas at Austin who made the following proclamation during the course of a formal speaking engagement at the Texas Academy of Science:


ADDITIONAL NOTATION: Rebov (Reston Ebola virus) has only been observed in primates, pigs, and humans in isolated incidences - the aforementioned categorization concerning the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia, in 1989 (Hence the disease name’s origin) within the confines of a primate quarantine facility. Richard Preston, the syndicated author of the Hot Zone, inadvertently reveals his inner suspicions, or perhaps a subliminal suggestion in the following statement:

“… However, something eerie and perhaps sinister occurred. All four men eventually tested positive for Ebola Reston virus. They had all been infected with the agent. The virus had entered their bloodstreams and multiplied in their cells. Ebola proliferated in their bodies. It cycled in them. It carried on its life inside the monkey workers (This characterization isn’t meant to signify racial insensitivity or an inherent prejudicial predisposition on the part of the author, rather it serves as Preston’s description of the workers scope of responsibility within the facility). But it did NOT make them sick, even while it multiplied inside them. If they had headaches or felt ill, none of them could recall it. Eventually the virus cleared from their systems naturally, disappeared from their blood, and as of this writing, none of the men was affected by it.”

“The workers at Reston had symptomless Ebola virus. Why didn’t it kill them? To this day, no one knows the answer to that question.”

Reston was isolated from cynomolgus monkeys from the Philippines, and prior to 2009, no evidence substantiating interspecieal transmissibility between pigs and humans in the aforementioned country was available. The Philippines had tested 141 people, according to researchers, with six of that number having been employed on pig farms or having had personal contact with swine-specific products possessing antibodies to the Ebola Reston virus, indicating their exposure, and therefore their infection by pigs at some point in time. These findings corroborated suspicions of the possibility of airborne transmission or the incidence of a mutagenically inspired variant of Rebov. The fact that pathogenic strains are routinely engineered by governments throughout the globe to effect mass casualty in populational segments based solely on the premise of ethnic distinction provides conclusive evidence affirming prior contentions that the Reston virus can be biomolecularly altered in a scientific setting - and with its property of airborne transmissibility having been confirmed by the scientific community in numerous studies, questions referencing the agent’s lethality in humans can be laid to rest.

The concept of bioengineering as it pertains to the alteration of molecular sequence is alluded to in the quote, as Dr Pianka, being an esteemed member of the medical profession is well aware of the Reston virus’ abject lack of lethality in humans - thereby lending credence to the notion that a pathogenic variant of the aforementioned contagion has been created in an experimental setting.



Apart from the morally reprehensible statements made by one of North America's most celebrated researchers in the field of Integrative Biology, was the recent publication of an open access attributed article of reference authored by Kevin Mugur Galalae - the Founder and Director of the Center of Global Consciousness in Ontario - detailing the evolution of a medical-agricultural industrial complex expressly designed by its progenitors to facilitate a marked reduction in the civilian population via covert infertility strategies through the administration of vaccine-based derivatives (the utilization of which is advertised as a hypothetically contrived panacea, often administered to the inhabitants of Third World principalities as a type of controlled experiment where the independent variable - in this particular instance the chemical or biologically-derived compound included in the scientific study - can be selectively altered at different intervals to gauge its effect on patients prior to its release in a more industrialized setting) and/ or the development of immune suppression technologies. Galalae contends that the prospect of an unchallenged increase in the world’s population density is adversely contributing to the scarcity of life-sustaining resources, but disagrees with the approach being implemented by his Elitist contemporaries - a fact evidenced in the following:

The Subversion of Medicine and Public Healthcare Through the Application of International Security Prerogatives

CONCLUSION: The existence of Project BioShield in the context of the prevailing Federal memoranda poses the greatest danger to humanity, in that the ramifications of its enactment have exposed the world entire to something far deadlier than even those parties responsible for its creation realize.
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