Written By Michael Reign on Tuesday, October 27, 2015 | 10:35 PM

Alternatively known as Cleptocracy or Kleptarchy - terminology whose principal origin is derived from the Greek vernacular: κλέπτης (thief) and κράτος (rule) - is an article of description applied to a system of governance predicated upon aspects of control fraud that fully utilizes federal and state level corruption as a means to engender a marked increase in the personal wealth and political influence of the electorate as well as the ruling class as a whole. 

Kleptocratic Political Regimes Throughout the Course of History

The following itemized listing, as documented by the German anti-corruption NGO (Non-governmental Organization) Transparency International in 2004, functions as an instrument of reference concerning the existence of kleptocratic political regimes throughout the course of recorded history.

Numerical order determined by the severity of misappropriation, the monetary equivalent of which is gauged in USD (United States Dollars):

1. Former Indonesian President Suharto ($15 billion – $35 billion)

2. Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos (at least $10 billion by 1986, equivalent to about $21.6 billion in 2014 dollars)
3. Former Congolese President Mobutu Sese Seko ($5 billion)
4. Former Nigerian Head of State Sani Abacha ($2 billion – $5 billion)

5. Former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević ($1 billion)

6. Former Haitian President Jean-Claude Duvalier (“Baby Doc”) ($300 million – $800 million)

7. Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori ($600 million)
8. Former Ukrainian Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko ($114 million – $200 million)

9. Former Nicaraguan President Arnoldo Alemán ($100 million)
10. Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada ($78 million – $80 million)
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